Ever since portraiture become popular among the newly empowered merchant classes in Europe a few centuries ago, it has been common practice for portrait artists in the early stages of their career to paint non-commissioned portraits as examples of their ability.
These are often intended to be striking and memorable, advertising the artist’s capabilities and hopefully achieving wide notice — putting their creator’s services in demand.
John Singer Sargent was no exception, though his attempt to paint a dramatic and attention getting portrait of a beautiful American socialite resulted in a simultaneous artistic triumph and societal disaster.
Virginie Amélie Avegno was an American who became Madame Pierre Gautreau, and was known for her beauty and charm. Like Sargent, she wanted greater acceptance in the circles of Parisian society in which she now moved, so she accepted his invitation to pose for a full-length portrait, having turned down similar offers from other painters.
Work on the portrait stretched out longer than either Mme Gatreau or the artist would have liked. There are numerous drawings and studies, and at least one unfinished full size study (now in the Tate, image above, second from bottom).
When the finished portrait was displayed at the Salon of 1884, Sargent had placed his model against a plain background in an unusual pose — her weight partially on a backward turned arm, her body toward the viewer, her head turned in dramatic profile and her skin strikingly pale against the dark background, with the exception of her ear, almost as red as her lips.
She was dressed in a daring black gown, one golden strap of which was off her shoulder.
The painting debuted at the Salon and did indeed garner attention, but the Parisians declared it a scandal rather than a triumph, shaming both artist and model (whose name had been unsuccessfully withheld by the title “Mme ***”).
Sargent, who did not relish this kind of negative attention, repainted the strap on the shoulder instead of off, and renamed the painting “Madame X”, but it did not improve subsequent reception of the work in France.
Sargent gave up on his hope of establishing himself in Paris and moved shortly thereafter to London, where he kept the painting in his studio (above, bottom), not allowing it to be exhibited again for 30 years. Mme Gatreau subsequently had her portrait painted by other artists, like Antonio de La Gandara.
Jonathan Jones, in his column for the Guardian, suggests it was not the painting style, the pale complexion of Mme Gatreau, the stark composition or the dangling strap, but the dress itself, and what it revealed about Parisian high society at the time, that prompted the reaction of scandal.
When he eventually sold the painting to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, Sargent is said to have remarked “I suppose it is the best thing I have done.”
Full size study - Tate
Sketches on JSS Virtual Gallery
Article on the Guardian
Article on Wikipedia
John Singer Sargent
John Singer Sargent on Met Museum website
Sargent and Impressionism
Velázquez's Las meninas and Sargent's Daughters of Edward Darley Boit
Sargent in Venice
John Singer Sargent murals
Eye Candy: Sargent watercolor
7 Replies to “John Singer Sargent’s Madame X”
How appropriate for you to feature Sargent as I just returned from the Biltmore Mansion, where there are (if I remember correctly) 3 Sargent paintings – one a particularly striking portrait of George Vanderbilt himself. I enjoy Sargent’s style very much, and no matter what scandal it caused, his work comes from a fabulous period in art. Thanks for this post, and especially the studies and drawing, they really are masterful!
A fascinating insight into the power of the Salon at that time… Thank you for yet another interesting post.
Just wonderful. Thanks Charley. This painting has had a haunting influence on me for a long time. I really enjoyed seeing the other portrait of her by another artist. Are there more?
Another study by Sargent.
One by Gustave Courtois.
I don’t know about others.
Really enjoyed this and also the Guardian article.
My latest historical novel is about John Singer Sargent and Madame X! AND the Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, and Louise Burckhardt (The Lady with a White Rose), and various other friends and lovers. It’s titled “Portraits of an Artist” and takes place in Paris during 1882-84, when Sargent was at the height of his fame there, and chronicles his devastating fall from favor after the scandal of the Portrait of Madame X forced him to leave Paris for London. See more at my blog.
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