19th century French painter Jehan-Georges (Jean-Georges) Vibert was born in Paris and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
He was known in particular for his satirical portrayals of Roman Catholic clergy — particularly Cardinals — who he portrayed indulging in lavish lifestyles rather than performing their assigned duties.
These paintings were popular in France at the time, where the relationship between Napoleon Bonaparte and the Holy Roman Empire was complex and heated, to say the least.
Vibert was proficient in watercolor and gouache as well as oil. He was a founding member of the French watercolor society.
James Gurney has two excellent articles on his blog about Vibert’s gouaches, and about his paintings of Cardinals. His articles have more and better background information on Vibert than I’ve found elsewhere.